Plans and strategies are achieved through decision-making; The better the decision-making, the better the strategic planning. Managers look for problems and opportunities, make decisions to solve or use them, and monitor consequences to see if additional decisions are needed. Decision-making deals with problems. A problem arises when a real fact deviates from a desired fact. Heinz Weihrich and Harold Koontz define decision-making as follows: “Decision-making is defined as the choice of an approach among alternatives; it is the maintenance of planning. Decision-making is defined as the choice of an approach among alternatives. This is the heart of planning. Organizations will only have different plans when decisions are made regarding resource conservation. The main task of a manager is to make decisions about what to do, when to do, who to do, how to do, where to do and to answer all other questions.
Decisions set the direction of organizations. In psychology, decision-making (also known as decision-making and decision-making) is considered to be the cognitive process that leads to the selection of a belief or mode of action from several possible alternative options. This can be rational or irrational. The decision-making process is a process of argumentation based on assumptions about the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker.  Any decision-making process leads to a final decision, which may or may not lead to action. An essential part of decision-making is the analysis of a finite set of alternatives, which are described in the form of evaluation criteria. Then, the task could be to evaluate these alternatives according to their attractiveness to decision-makers if all the criteria are taken into account at the same time. Another task could be to find the best alternative or determine the relative overall priority of each alternative (e.g. .B. if the alternatives are competing projects for funds), if all criteria are taken into account at the same time.
Solving such problems is central to multi-criteria business intelligence (MCDA). This area of decision-making, although very old, has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners and is still very controversial because there are many MCDA methods that can give very different results when applied to exactly the same data.  This leads to the formulation of a decision paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all scientific professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in a particular field to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision-making often involves diagnosis and the choice of appropriate treatment. However, naturalistic research on decision shows that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguity, experts can use intuitive decisions rather than structured approaches. They can follow a decision prepared for recognition that corresponds to their experience and arrive at an action plan without weighing the alternatives.  A leadership function that includes all other management functions, i.e. decision-making. Rational decision-making is a multi-step process for making decisions between alternatives. The rational decision-making process favors logic, objectivity, and analysis rather than subjectivity and insight. Irrational decisions tend to contradict logic.
Decisions are made in a hurry and the results are not taken into account.  Therefore, clarity of objectives or objectives is essential to making better decisions. Of course, your decision may need to achieve multiple goals, so you need to analyze and prioritize them. Making a decision is rarely easy and is often a compromise between what you really want, the ideal and what can actually be done. It is rare that we have completely free hands to make decisions. However, it is still worth asking, “If we didn`t have restrictions, what would we choose?” In 2009, Professor John Pijanowski described how the Arkansas Program, an ethics program at the University of Arkansas, used eight levels of moral decision-making based on the work of James Rest::6 Try to visualize your choice as if it were already happening. Ask yourself, “What could be the consequences?” You engage in an uncertain approach, so tracking and adjusting your plans as they are implemented is often the secret to success. Decision-making can be seen as a problem-solving activity that results in a solution that is considered optimal or at least satisfactory.
It is therefore a process that can be more or less rational or irrational and that can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge and beliefs. Implicit knowledge is often used to fill gaps in complex decision-making processes.  Typically, these two types of knowledge, implicit and explicit, are used together in the decision-making process. .