MEAs are state-to-state agreements that can take the form of a “non-binding law,” which establishes non-legally binding principles that parties must take into account when taking action to address a particular environmental problem, or a “strict law,” which establishes legally binding measures to achieve an environmental goal. Most environmental problems are cross-border and often global, and they can only be effectively solved through international cooperation. For this reason, the Treaty of Lisbon states that one of the main objectives of EU environmental policy is to promote action at international level to address regional or global environmental problems, and in particular to combat climate change. The Union actively participates in the preparation, ratification and implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are agreements between three or more states that help solve specific environmental problems at the national, regional and global levels. Examples include pollution of rivers and seas that are part of several countries (e.g. B, the Mediterranean or the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada), and air pollution spread from one or more countries to several other countries (for example. B, sulphur dioxide and dust from power stations in Europe). In 2002, the EAC Summit of Heads of State and Government decided that the EAC should negotiate regional and multilateral issues as a whole. The draft framework for joint participation and implementation of regional and multilateral environmental agreements (MAAs) has been finalized. The objective of this framework is to provide guidance to EAC Partner States in the implementation of various multilateral environmental agreements to which Partner States have acceded. As a United Nations environmental treaty, CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
This treaty of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) aims to facilitate close cooperation in the conservation of migratory species between countries crossed by these animals during their annual voyages. Among the species that do so and are listed in the appendices to the Convention are many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish and seabirds. CMS is actively involved in many species-specific global and regional activities, but also in a variety of broader environmental issues such as unsustainable fisheries, including bycatch, ship strikes, marine noise and marine pollution, including marine litter. CITES is an international agreement to which States and regional economic integration organizations voluntarily adhere. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (CITES “acceded”) are referred to as Contracting Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on Parties – in other words, they must implement the Convention – it does not replace national laws. Rather, it provides a framework for each Party to adopt its own national legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. The Marrakesh Ministerial Decision on Trade and Environment sets out the work programme of the Trade and Environment Commission (ETC). Items 1 and 5 concern the relationship between the rules of the multilateral trading system and the trade measures contained in multilateral agreements, as well as between their dispute settlement mechanisms. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) hosts the secretariats of many important multilateral environmental agreements and research organizations that bring together nations and the environmental community to address the greatest challenges of our time.
Click here to learn more about MEAs. The Union has already ratified many international environmental agreements, both at global level (multilateral agreements negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations), at regional level (e.B. within the framework of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe or the Council of Europe) and at the subregional level (e.B. for the management of transboundary seas or rivers). The Action Programme also includes a priority horizontal objective to help the Union address international environmental and climate challenges more effectively. It recalls that the EU has a good track record of acceding to multilateral environmental agreements and calls on the EU and its Member States to participate proactively in international negotiations on new and emerging issues. .